Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
History units taught in the College of Indigenous Futures, Education, Arts and Society use the CDU History Referencing style, which is based on the Oxford Referencing style. The CDU History Referencing and Essay Writing Guide provides you with details on how to write and structure your essay, and how to cite and reference your resources.
The IEEE is a numbered referencing style. All the in-text citations receive a number in numerical order according to when they appear in the text. That number is repeated in the in-text citation each time the same reference is used. The reference list at the end of the article provides the full details of all references cited in numerical order.
Example of using a number in-text:
The desire for artificial intelligence to display human qualities is often depicted in science fiction, for example, the character Data who wishes to acquire the ability to experience emotions .
Example of citing a journal article in the reference list:
 S. Short, "The Measure of a Man? Asimov's Bicentennial Man, Star Trek's Data, and Being Human," Extrapolation, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 209-223, 2003. doi: 10.3828/extr.2003.442.6
The Chicago Author-Date referencing style has two basic systems of documentation:
- the footnote and endnote or the notes and bibliography style, often used in humanities
- the author-date style.
A numeric citation system, commonly used in medical and scientific journals.
Referencing in Vancouver Citation Style requires:
- a number in the body of your paper.
- at the end of your work, a numbered list of the references used.
- numbering in ascending sequence, either in brackets or in superscript.
The definitive guide to Vancouver referencing was developed by the National Library of Medicine in the US. The others are examples from other university libraries. Each are slightly different so it is important to be consistent with whichever version you follow.
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Sample References
The Vancouver system takes its name from a meeting in Vancouver, Canada in 1978 that led to the establishment of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (ICMJE) This was further developed by the National Library of Medicine in the U.S whose version "should be considered as the authoritative style" according to the British Medical Association. (BMA)
NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers
Citing Medicine provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications, to editors in revising such lists, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations.
How to cite ABS statistics
Information from the Australian Bureau of Statistics must be acknowledged responsibly whenever it is used. Citing, or referencing, is important for several reasons, including acknowledging that one has used the ideas, words or data of others. Accurately citing sources used also allows others to find and use the original information.
Charles Darwin University acknowledges the traditional custodians across the lands on which we live and work, and we pay our respects to Elders both past and present.