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Referencing Guide: Other Styles

Other Styles

The IEEE is a numbered referencing style. All the in-text citations receive a number in numerical order according to when they appear in the text. That number is repeated in the in-text citation each time the same reference is used. The reference list at the end of the article provides the full details of all references cited in numerical order. 

Example of using a number in-text:

The desire for artificial intelligence to display human qualities is often depicted in science fiction, for example, the character Data who wishes to acquire the ability to experience emotions [1].   

Example of citing a journal article in the reference list:

[1] S. Short, "The Measure of a Man? Asimov's Bicentennial Man, Star Trek's Data, and Being Human," Extrapolation, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 209-223, 2003. doi: 10.3828/extr.2003.442.6


The Chicago Author-Date referencing style has two basic systems of documentation:

  • the footnote and endnote or the notes and bibliography style, often used in humanities
  • the author-date style.

A numeric citation system, commonly used in medical and scientific journals.

Referencing in Vancouver Citation Style requires:

  • a number in the body of your paper.
  • at the end of your work, a numbered list of the references used.
  • numbering in ascending sequence, either in brackets or in superscript.

The definitive guide to Vancouver referencing was developed by the National Library of Medicine in the US. The others are examples from other university libraries. Each are slightly different so it is important to be consistent with whichever version you follow.

JSAMS (Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport) referencing information is accessible here:

How to cite ABS statistics

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