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Pharmacy Guide: Referencing and EndNote

Resources available to assist Pharmacy students


A numeric citation system, commonly used in medical and scientific journals.

Referencing in Vancouver Citation Style requires:

  • a number in the body of your paper.
  • at the end of your work, a numbered list of the references used.
  • numbering in ascending sequence, either in brackets or in superscript.

The definitive guide to Vancouver referencing was developed by the National Library of Medicine in the US. The others are examples from other university libraries. Each are slightly different so it is important to be consistent with whichever version you follow.

The Vancouver system takes its name from a meeting in Vancouver, Canada in 1978 that led to the establishment of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (ICMJE) This was further developed by the National Library of Medicine in the U.S whose version "should be considered as the authoritative style" according to the British Medical Association. (BMA)

CDU APA 7th Referencing Style Guide (February 2020)

Examples are taken from American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). Washington, DC: Author.

The guide is regularly updated so always check the date on yours to make sure you have the latest. If you believe you have found an error or wish to clarify how to reference an item contact us via

A sample reference essay is available from the link below. It will assist your understanding of what your in text citations and your reference list should look like.

APA 7th Referencing Sample Essay Edit/Delete Quick Stats

Charles Darwin University acknowledges the traditional custodians across the lands on which we live and work, and we pay our respects to Elders both past and present.
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