"Reflective practice occurs when you explore an experience you have had to identify what happened, and what your role in the experience was – including your behaviour and thinking, and related emotions. This, allows you to look at changes to your approach for similar future events. If reflective practice is performed comprehensively and honestly, it will inevitably lead to improved performances" (La Trobe University, 2015).
"Reviewing experience from practice so that it may be described, analysed, evaluated and consequently used to inform and change future practice. Importantly, reflection also involves opening up one's practice for others to examine, and consequently requires courage and open-mindedness as well as a willingness to take on board and act on criticism" (Bulman, 2008, p. 2).
Gibbs' reflective cycle involves 6 steps:
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Brookes University.
Atkins, S., & Murphy, K. (1994). Reflective practice. Nursing Standard, 8(39), 49-56.
Johns' model of reflection uses 5 cues to help the practitioner reflect on an event/experience, to make sense of it and to learn through it:
There are various questions that can be asked for each section.
Could I have dealt with it better
Johns, C. (1994). Nuances of reflection. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 3(2), 71-74 4p. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.1994.tb00364.x
Rolfe's framework of reflective practice is based on Borton's (1970) model. It consists of three key questions:
What ...? - Descriptive level of reflection
So what ...? - Theory and knowledge building level of reflection
Now what ...? - Action-orientated (reflective) level of reflection